CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NATIVES AND COLONISTS

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Metacom's War
Metacom's War
The New England Confederation, otherwise known as the United Colonies of New England, was an alliance between the English colonies of: New Haven, Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. After several years of negotiations, delegates from each of the colonies met in Boston in 1643 and formed the New England Confederation. The Confederation was not intended to be a central government for the New England colonies; each still carried on its own governing institutions. (Freeborn)
The organization was to be composed of two delegates from each of the four member colonies. Six of the eight votes were necessary to adopt any measure. Regular annual meetings were to be held, but additional conferences could be called in cases of emergency. Its purpose was to create an alliance of English colonies in order to defend against Native American attacks and raids on Colonial settlements. (White) It served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes as well. Perpetuity the alliance only lasted until 1684, when the confederation was disbanded, sadly none of its goals were accomplished. The New England Confederation was a small first step toward formal cooperation among the colonies. (Johnson)


The following primary source depicts the original terms and conditions of the New England Confederation.
New England Confederation-
May 19, 1643
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION between the plantations under the government of the Massachusetts, the plantations under the government of New Plymouth, the plantations under the government of Connecticut, and the government of New Haven with the plantations in combination therewith:

"WHEREAS we all came into these parts of America with one and the same end and aim, namely, to advance the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ and to enjoy the liberties of the Gospel in purity with peace; and whereas in our settling (by a wise providence of God) we are further dispersed upon the seacoasts and rivers than was at first intended, so that we cannot according to our desire with convenience communicate in one government and jurisdiction; and whereas we live encompassed with people of several nations and strange languages which hereafter may prove injurious to us or our posterity; and forasmuch as the natives have formerly committed sundry insolences and outrages upon several plantations of the English and have of late combined themselves against us; and seeing by reason of those sad distractions in England which they have heard of, and by which they know we are hindered from that humble way of seeking advice, or reaping those comfortable fruits of protection, which at other times we might well expect, we, therefore, do conceive it our bounden duty, without delay, to enter into a present consociation among ourselves, for mutual help and strength in all our future concernments.

That, as in nation and religion, so in other respects, we be and continue one according to the tenor and true meaning of the ensuing articles. Wherefore it is fully agreed and concluded by and between the parties of jurisdictions above named, and they jointly and severally do by these presents agree and conclude that they all be and henceforth be called by the name of the United Colonies of New England.


2.The said United Colonies, for themselves and their posterities, do jointly and severally hereby enter into a firm and perpetual league of friendship and amity for offense and defense, mutual advice and succor upon all just occasions, both for preserving and propogating the truth and liberties of the Gospel and for their own mutual safety and welfare.

3.It is further agreed that the plantations which at present are, or hereafter shall be, settled within the limits of the Massachusetts shall be forever under the Massachusetts, and shall have particular jurisdiction among themselves in all cases as an entire body; and that Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven shall each of them have like particular jurisdiction and government within their limits, and in reference to the plantations which already are settled, or shall hereafter be erected, or shall settle within their limits respectively; provided that no other jurisdiction shall hereafter be taken in as a distinct head or member of this confederation, nor shall any other plantation or jurisdiction in present being, and not already in combination or under the jurisdiction of any of these confederates, be received by any of them; nor shall any two of the confederates join in one jurisdiction without consent of the rest, which consent to be interpreted as is expresed in the 6th article ensuing.

4.It is by these confederates agreed that the charge of all just wars, whether offensive or defensive, upon what part or member of this confederation soever they fall, shall both in men and provisions and all other disbursements be borne by all the parts of this confederation in different proportions according to their different ability in manner following, namely, that the commissioners for each jurisdiction, from time to time as there shall be occasion, bring a true account and number of all the males in every plantation or any way belonging to or under their federal jurisdictions of what quality or condition soever they be from sixteen years old to threescore being inhabitants there. And that according to the different numbers which from time to time shall be found in each jurisdiction, upon a true and just account, the service of men and all charges of the war be borne by the poll; each jurisdiction or plantation being left to their own course and custom of rating themselves and people according to their different estates with due respects to their qualities and exemptions among themselves though the confederation take no notice of any such privilege; and that according to their different charge of each jurisdiction and plantation, the whole advantage of the war (if it please God to bless their endeavors), whether it be in lands, goods, or persons, shall be proportionately divided among the said confederates.

5.It is further agreed that, if any of these jurisdictions or any plantation under or in combination with them be invaded by any enemy whatsoever, upon notice and request of any three magistrates of that jurisdiction so invaded, the rest of the confederates, without any further meeting or expostulation, shall forthwith send aid to the confederate in danger but in different proportions; namely, the Massachusetts, 100 men sufficiently armed and provided for such a service and journey, and each of the rest, 45 so armed and provided, or any less number, if less be required according to this proportion. But in any such case of sending men for present aid, whether before or after such order or alteration, it is agreed that at the meeting of the commissioners for this confederation the cause of such war or invasion be duly considered; and if it appear that the fault lay in the parties so invaded that then that jurisdiction or plantation make just satisfaction, both to the invaders whom they have injured, and bear all the charges of the war themselves, without requiring any allowance from the rest of the confederates toward the same. And, further, that if any jurisdiction see any danger of any invasion approaching, and there be time for a meeting, that in such case three magistrates of that jurisdiction may summon a meeting at such convenient place as themselves shall think meet, to consider and provide against the threatened danger; provided when they are met they may remove to what place they please. Only while any of these four confederates have but three magistrates in their jurisdiction, their request or summons from any two of them shall be accounted of equal force with the three mentioned in both the clauses of this article, till there be an increase of magistrates there.

6.It is also agreed that for the managing and concluding of all affairs proper and concerning the whole confederation, two commissioners shall be chosen by and out of each of these four jurisdictions; namely, two for the Massachusetts, two for Plymouth, two for Connecticut, and two for New Haven, being all in church fellowship with us, which shall bring full power from their several General Courts respectively to hear, examine, weigh, and determine all affairs of our war or peace leagues, aids, charges, and numbers of men for war, division of spoils and whatsoever is gotten by conquest, receiving of more confederates for plantations into combination with any of the confederates, and all things of like nature, which are the proper concommitants or consequents of such a confederation for amity, offense, and defense, not inter-meddling with the government of any of the jurisdictions, which by the 3rd article is preserved entirely to themselves... It is further agreed that these eight commissioners shall meet once every year, besides extraordinary meetings (according to the 5th article), to consider, treat, and conclude of all affairs belonging to this confederation...

7.It is also agreed that the commissioners for this confederation hereafter at their meetings, whether ordinary or extraordinary, as they may have commission or opportunity, do endeavor to frame and establish agreements and orders in general cases of a civil nature, wherein all the plantations are interested, for preserving peace among themselves and preventing as much as may be all occasion of war or difference with others, as about the free and speedy passage of justice in every jurisdiction, to all the confederates equally as to their own, receiving those that remove from one plantation to another without due certificates; how all the jurisidictions may carry it toward the Indians, that they neither grow insolent nor be injured without due satisfaction, lest war break in upon the confederates through such miscarriage.

It is agreed that if any servant run away from his master into any other of these confederated jurisdictions, that in such case, upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of which the said servant shall be delivered either to his master or any other that pursues and brings such certificate of proof. And that upon the escape of any prisoner whatsoever, or fugitive for any criminal cause, whether breaking prison, or getting away from the officer, or otherwise escaping, upon the certificate of two magistrates of the jurisdiction out of which the escape is made, that he was a prisoner, or such an offender at the time of the escape, the magistreates, or some of them of that jurisdiction where for the present the said prisoner or fugitive abides, shall forthwith grant such a warrant as the case will bear for the apprehending of any such person, and the delivery of him into the hands of the officer or other person who pursues him. And if there be help required for the safe returning of any such offender, then it shall be granted to him that craves the same, he paying the charges thereof.


8.And for that the justest wars may be of dangerous consequence, especially to the smaller plantations in these United Colonies, it is agreed that neither the Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, nor New Haven, nor any of the members of them, shall at any time hereafter begin, undertake, or engage themselves, or this confederation, or any part thereof in any war whatsoever (sudden exigents with the necessary consequents thereof excepted which are also to be moderated as much as the case will permit) without the consent and agreement of the forenamed eight commissioners, or at least six of them, as in the 6th article is provided; and that no charge be required of any of the confederates in case of a defensive war till the said commissioners have met and approved the justice of the war, and have agreed upon the sum of money to be levied, which sum is then to be paid by the several confederates in proportion according to the 4th article...

9.It is further agreed that if any of the confederates shall hereafter break any of these present articles, or be any other ways injurious to any one of the other jurisdictions, that both peace and this present confederation may be entirely preserved without violation"
...
New England Confederation
(History Central)



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In 1600 the Wampanoag lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, as well as within a territory that encompassed current day Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Their population numbered about 12,000. Between 1640 and 1675, new waves of settlers arrived and continued to force the native peoples westward. While the Pilgrims had normally paid for land, or had at least asked for permission, most Puritans simply took land for themselves. In 1665 the Indians of southern New England were simply in the way of the English. The population of the native peoples continued to decline, due to recurring epidemics between 1633, and 1667. Throughout the years the Natives attempted to make peace with the settlers but unfortunately none of these attempts succeeded. (Brigane)
Even Massasoit attempted to take on English customs. Before his death in 1661, he asked the legislators in Plymouth to give both of his sons English names. Wamsutta, the older son, was given the name Alexander, and his younger brother, Metacomet, was named Philip. Metacomet (also known as King Philip, Metacom, or Pometacom) was born in 1639 to a Wampanoag chief by the name of Massasoit. When Metacomet's father passed away the title of Sachem (chief) was passed onto his eldest son Watsumma (King Alexander). Watsumma mysteriously died after he paid a visit to a colonial settlement, and thus the title of Sachem was passed onto Metacomet. Metacomet is made famous by being the chief of the Wampanoag tribe throughout King Philip's War. At first he sought to live in harmony with the colonists. (Hilton)
Philip was not seen as a radical Sachem, but under his rule the relationship between the Wampanoag and the colonists changed dramatically. Philip understood that the English would eventually take over everything, not only native land, but also their culture, their way of life and their religion. Philip decided to impede the further expansion of English settlements. For the Wampanoag alone, this was impossible, because at that time their tribe numbered less than 1,000. Philip began to visit other tribes, to talk them into his plan. This too was a nearly hopeless undertaking, because at that time the number of colonists in southern New England was more than double that of the Indians – 35,000 colonists in the face of 15,000 natives. (Indexnew)

MAPS OF KING PHILIP'S WAR
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Finally, in 1671 Philip was called to Taunton, where he listened to the accusations of the English of the Plymouth Colony who forced major concessions from him. He surrendered much of his tribe's armament and ammunition, and agreed that they were subject to English law. He signed an agreement that required the Wampanoag to give up their firearms. To be on the safe side however, he did not take part in dinner, and the weapons were not delivered later either. The seizures of land by the English continued, and little by little, Philip gained the Nipmunk, Pocotomuc, and Narragansett as allies. The beginning of the uprising was first scheduled for the spring of 1676. Metacomet was chosen as a leader to lead all the fellow opponents of the English. (Hilton)
When the war had eventually turned against him, he took refuge in the a swamp in Southern Massachusetts. Here he held out for a time, with his family and remaining followers. Hunted by a group of rangers led by Captain Benjamin Church, he was fatally shot on August 12, 1676, in the Miery Swamp near Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island. After his death, his wife and eight-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda, while his head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees. (Indexnew)
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Catherine BonnerMegan Simcock

WORKS CITED



Brigane, Jack. "Wampanoag." Wampa Indians. Total, 14 Jan. 2010. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://tolatsga.org/wampa.html>.

Picture of Metacomet:
"Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials." Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records. Find A Grave, 13 June 2010. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr>.
Picture of Map of King Philip's War: 1) HST 321: History of the American West." HST 321. Web. 04 Nov. 2011;
http://history.msu.edu/hst321/course-schedule/section-three-the-second-frontier/the-second-frontier/

Freeborn, Micheal. "New England Confederation." American History and World History at Historycentral.com the Largest and Most Complete History Site on the Web. World History, 3 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.historycentral.com/documents/NewEngland.html>.

Hilton, Jean. "King Philip." Mayflower And Early Families. Early America, 10 Dec. 2008. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.mayflowerfamilies.com/enquirer/king_philip.htm>.


History Central. "New England Confederation." American History and World History at Historycentral.com the Largest and Most Complete History Site on the Web. MultiEducator, Inc., 16 Apr. 2000. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.historycentral.com/documents/NewEngland.html>.

Johnson, Keith. "New England Confederation." History of the USA. History Today, 23 Jan. 2010. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.usahistory.info/NewEngland/>.

Lotz, Peter. "Chief Philip/Metacomet." Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire. AF, 17 June 2009. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/chiefphilip.htm>.


Map of Colonial America:
"Maps of United States - Early America 1400-1800." Educational Technology Clearinghouse. Clearinghouse, 2009. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://etc.usf.edu/maps/galleries/us/earlyamerica14001800/index.php?pageNum_Recordset1=3>.

Marks, Jillian. "King Philip - Biography." Indexnew. WB, 20 May 2009. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.westbrookfield.org/kingp-bio.htm>.

Swanson, Anthony. "New England Confederation." United States History. U.S. History, 12 July 2009. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h545.htmlhttp://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h545.html>.

White, Jason. "New England Confederation - Information About the New England Confederation." American History From About. AHA, 30 Aug. 2009. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://americanhistory.about.com/od/colonialamerica/g/New-England-Confederation.htm>.