Identify some of the major leaders and groups responsible for the founding of the original colonies in North America. 1) Who founded the colony
2) When was the colony founded
3) Why was the colony founded (Political, social, economic, religious)
4) History of the Colony leading up to the French and Indian War
5) Colonies relationship with the Native Americans
6) Slave population

Team of Kevin T and Delaney N

Captain John Mason, an English born soldier who later funded the founding of what is now New Hampshire.
Captain John Mason, an English born soldier who later funded the founding of what is now New Hampshire.
In 1623, English Captain John Mason and Sir Ferinando Gorges dispatched a group of pioneers to create fishing villages along the Piscataqua River in present day New Hampshire. (Britannica) That New Hampshire was founded to create fishing villages made it differ from other colonies that were created due to religious or political persecution. Once the settlers reached the Piscataqua, the team split into two groups. One group settled at the mouth of the river to create a factory of sorts where the fish would be processed and named it Pannaway, now known as Rye. The other continued upstream to form Northam, now Dover, where they constructed fishing stages. In 1629 Mason took sole control of the land grant, and it was at this time that the area donned the name New Hampshire, after Mason's home county, Hampshire. By the time of Mason's death in 1635, New Hampshire had grown to include Portsmouth, Hampton and Exeter, and its commerce had increased to include timber and the fur trade. (The State of New Hampshire, "New Hampshire Almanac")

New Hampshire remained a fairly loose collection of settlements until 1641 when Massachusetts took jurisdiction over New Hampshire. (shgresources.com) After a fairly brief thrity-eight year stint, New Hampshire became a royal province under the supervision of John Cutt. As a royal province, the people and customs were intended to parallel life as it was in England. However, by 1698 New Hampshire had a new governor, Joseph Dudley, and saw itself under control of Massachusetts. New Hampshire remained this way until 1741, when King George II saw to it that many changes were made. (The State of New Hampshire, "New Hampshire Almanac")

Under the authority of Benning Wentworth, who was appointed chief magistrate, New Hampshire re-acquired its status of royal province. For Wentworth's first two terms, New Hampshire saw many military issues. At first, there were many disagreements with the Native Americans that the throne did not support. As well as the threat from the Natives, New Hampshire also had a front-row seat to the French and Indian War. Many of the colonists took part in the sieges of Louisbourg, and even went so far as to help in the conquest of Canada. Although the King was too busy with war to explore the unknowns of New Hampshire, Governor Wentworth took some preliminary actions to ready parties to explore as soon as possible. (The State of New Hampshire, "New Hampshire Almanac")

In order to ensure that New Hampshire retain all of its rightful land, Wentworth had the claims of Robert Mason, heir of John Mason, purchased for fifteen hundred pounds. To do this, Wentwroth sought the help of a group of twelve investors known as the "Masonian Proprietors." By 1761 over one hundred towns were created, many with farming lots available to thirty families. Originally these towns stretched into present-day Vermont, but a later court order dictated that the Connecticut River be made the state boundary. Although the Proprietors would be able to distribute land at their will, the towns still had to maintain the integrity of the laws and regulations of New Hampshire. (The State of New Hampshire, "New Hampshire Almanac")


A map of the New Hampshire Colony that was drawn in 1757, under the rule of Benning Wentworth. The map is inscribed with this description: "An accurate map of His Majesty's Province of New-Hampshire in New England & all the adjacent country northward to the River St. Lawrence, & eastward to Penobscot Bay, containing the principal places which relate to the present war on the continent of North America. By Samuel Langdon."
A map of the New Hampshire Colony that was drawn in 1757, under the rule of Benning Wentworth. The map is inscribed with this description: "An accurate map of His Majesty's Province of New-Hampshire in New England & all the adjacent country northward to the River St. Lawrence, & eastward to Penobscot Bay, containing the principal places which relate to the present war on the continent of North America. By Samuel Langdon."



Relations between the Colonists and Natives were not too violent until the end of King Phillip's War in 1676. For the most part, the settlements of New Hampshire stayed relatively close to the shore of the Atlantic in order to keep in constant contact with England. There was some interaction though. For example, the settlers were able to trade with the Native Americans so that the Natives saw improvements in their metal in exchange for survival skills. Despite these peaceful interactions, the English were fearful of attack and built defenses in the event of a conflict. Although New Hampshire was not directly involved in King Phillip's War, the impact it had on the Native tribes in the area was felt in New Hampshire, especially with increasing Native alliances with the French. Over the next almost ninety years, settlements in New Hampshire saw many raids, skirmishes and wars with the Natives, concluding with the French and Indian War in 1763. (New Hampshire Historical Society, "Trouble In Colonial New Hampshire")

Slavery in New Hampshire was different than slavery in other states. The first slave was recorded in 1645 (shgresources.com) in Portsmouth, but that slave was one of the few. That does not mean that slavery was not prevalent in New Hampshire, it just concentrated more on trafficking. As one of a few colonies to not have imposed a tariff on slaves, New Hampshire was often used as a portal for slaves to enter the continent. From New Hampshire, slaves would be smuggled into other states, often times not staying in New Hampshire. However, there was an increase in the slave population recorded on every census, but the amount of slaves stayed proportionally low. Between 1773 and 1786, the number of slaves in New Hampshire decreased from 674 to just 46, many escaping to the British in Boston or to Canada. (slavenorth.com, "Slavery in New Hampshire")


Works Cited
Dover, Then. "NH.gov - New Hampshire Almanac - History." NH.gov - The Official Web Site of New Hampshire State Government. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.nh.gov/nhinfo/history.html>.
"John Mason." Hall of North and South Americans. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.famousamericans.net/johnmason/>.
Langdon.", Samuel. "Map of New Hampshire Colony." The Civil War. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/maps/new-hampshire-map.htm>.
"New Hampshire, Timeline of State History - SHG Resources." Your Guide To US States - SHG Resources. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.shgresources.com/nh/timeline/>.
"Slavery in New Hempshire." Slavery in the North. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.slavenorth.com/newhampshire.htm>.