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Sunday, November 13

  1. page Common Sense edited ... For such arrangements as your Majesty’s wisdom can form for collecting the united sense of you…
    ...
    For such arrangements as your Majesty’s wisdom can form for collecting the united sense of your American people, we are convinced your Majesty would receive such satisfactory proofs of the disposition of the Colonists towards their Sovereign and Parent State, that the wished for opportunity would soon be restored to them, of evincing the sincerity of their professions, by every testimony of devotion becoming the most dutiful subjects, and the most affectionate Colonists.
    That your Majesty may enjoy long and prosperous reign, and that your descendants may govern your Dominions with honour to themselves and happiness to their subjects, is our sincere prayer.
    ...
    Continental Congress preparesprepared for war
    ...
    John Dickinson preparesprepared the Olive
    ...
    Dickinson’s tone iswas clearly polite, as he requestsrequested his “Majesty’s
    ...
    attention.” He doesdid not even
    ...
    but instead blamesblamed ministerial policy,
    ...
    when he writeswrote that his
    ...
    He then explainsexplained how the
    ...
    faithful Colonists” dodid not, and
    ...
    Hence, he writeswrote that they arewere “connected with
    ...
    ties that can[could] unite societies.” Dickinson further explainsexplained that the colonists wantwanted their relationship
    ...
    as he writeswrote that they
    ...
    Dickinson’s intentions arewere as clear as they cancould be when he writeswrote that they arewere “ready and
    ...
    times” for ‘a"a happy and
    ...
    Evidently, he wantswanted the colonists
    ...
    request, however, iswas that the
    ...
    Here, Dickinson wantswanted the king
    ...
    the king proceedsproceeded to take
    ...
    view now seemsseemed more practical.
    {http://moonstoneartscenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/thomaspaineoval.jpg} Thomas Paine
    Common Sense (1776)
    The following is the full text of Common Sense:
    ...
    present day.
    Volumes

    Volumes
    have been
    ...
    the challenge.
    It

    It
    hath been
    ...
    with detestation.
    The

    The
    sun never
    ...
    grown characters.
    By

    By
    referring the
    ...
    her influence.
    As

    As
    much hath
    ...
    if dependant.
    I

    I
    have heard
    ...
    of Europe.
    But

    But
    she has
    ...
    and dominion.
    Alas,

    Alas,
    we have
    ...
    connections .
    It

    It
    hath lately
    ...
    Great Britain.
    But

    But
    Britain is
    ...
    descendants still.
    In

    In
    this extensive
    ...
    the sentiment.
    It

    It
    is pleasant
    ...
    and ungenerous.
    But

    But
    admitting that
    ...
    by France.
    Much

    Much
    hath been
    ...
    or Europe.
    Besides,

    Besides,
    what have
    ...
    from invaders.
    I

    I
    challenge the
    ...
    we will.
    But

    But
    the injuries
    ...
    British politics.
    Europe

    Europe
    is too
    ...
    nor safety.
    The

    The
    authority of
    ...
    our sight.
    Though

    Though
    I would
    ...
    other three.
    It

    It
    is the
    ...
    both armies.
    Men

    Men
    of passive
    ...
    a sycophant.
    This

    This
    is not
    ...
    and useful.
    It

    It
    is repugnant
    ...
    so deep.'
    Every

    Every
    quiet method
    ...
    and child.
    To

    To
    say, they
    ...
    the quarrel.
    As

    As
    to government
    ...
    to cease.
    Small

    Small
    islands not
    ...
    to itself.
    I

    I
    am not
    ...
    the earth.
    As

    As
    Britain hath
    ...
    put to.
    The

    The
    object contended
    ...
    his soul.
    But

    But
    admitting that
    ...
    several reasons.
    First.

    First.
    The powers
    ...
    I like.'
    But

    But
    the king
    ...
    be passed.
    America

    America
    is only
    ...
    nearly related.
    Secondly.

    Secondly.
    That as
    ...
    the continent.
    But

    But
    the most
    ...
    of Britain.
    Thousands

    Thousands
    are already
    ...
    bound thereby.
    The

    The
    colonies have
    ...
    over another.
    Where

    Where
    there are
    ...
    the mistake.
    If

    If
    there is
    ...
    useful matter.
    By

    By
    1776, Thomas Paine expressesexpressed his own
    ...
    Sense, he explainsexplained that “the
    ...
    of debate is[was] closed” and
    ...
    Here, Paine blamesblamed the king
    ...
    He then faultsfaulted English government
    ...
    when he blamesblamed it for
    ...
    trade. He explainsexplained that Britain only watcheswatched over the
    ...
    themselves. He explainsexplained how England
    ...
    that “it is[was] the true
    ...
    contentions.” He expressesexpressed certainty that
    ...
    problems that havehad already come about willwould either continue
    ...
    the colonies becomebecame independent. This
    ...
    where he introducesintroduced his main
    ...
    This point iswas made clearest when he writes,wrote, “’TIS TIME
    ...
    Here, Paine demandsdemanded that America
    ...
    immediately and explainsexplained that it iswas not time
    ...
    because it iswas unnatural and contrived. He impliesimplied that it iswas morally wrong
    ...
    when he writeswrote that God’s will opposesopposed the union,
    ...
    Bible. He explainsexplained why England hashad no right
    ...
    when he writeswrote that it iswas “so distant
    ...
    He further discussesdiscussed England’s faults
    ...
    impediments when writeswrote that “there
    ...
    Here, he indicatesindicated the illegitimacy
    ...
    Evidently, he believesbelieved that it iswas common sense
    ...
    and England arewere meant to
    ...
    Common Sense havehad their similarities, but they arewere ultimately different
    ...
    goals. They arewere both attempts
    ...
    the former iswas passive, while the latter iswas radical (Henretta 2007). Dickinson wantswanted England to
    ...
    but Paine wantswanted America to
    ...
    completely. He confirmsconfirmed himself as a radical—and putsput down others
    ...
    Both authors findfound fault in
    ...
    however, and aimaimed to have
    ...
    fixed. They communicatecommunicated their own
    ...
    Dickinson politely requestsrequested change, or rather, renewal, whichwhile Paine demandsdemanded a drastic change and attacksattacked the English.
    ...
    Dickinson’s method iswas probably the
    ...
    Paine’s technique provesproved to be
    ...
    goals actually becomebecame reality.
    Bibliography:
    ...
    Boston, MA:
    Bedford/st Martins, 2007. Print.
    “Olive Branch Petition, 1775.” Founding.com. Web. 05 Aug. 2011.
    (view changes)
    1:33 pm

Friday, November 4

  1. page The Colony of Virginia edited ... The Indian chief Powhatan was disgusted with the foreigners' attempt to manipulate his people …
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    The Indian chief Powhatan was disgusted with the foreigners' attempt to manipulate his people and exhaust them of their vital resources. His attempt at attacking Jamestown in 1618 failed, however, so he resorted to peaceful negotiation--offering his youngest daughter Pocahontas to wed one of the leading colonists John Rolfe. He also saved Captain John Smith from execution and provided the explorers with corn in exchange for weapons (Henretta 2007). Peace would inevitably fail to last, though, and war would erupt between the Native Americans and the English explorers.
    Starting in 1622, the Algonquian Indians attacked the English with the intent of permanently destroying their settlement; as many as a third of the men were killed. They retaliated by inviting the Indians to a supposed peace negotiation, but really ended up poisoning their drinks, killing about 200 of them (Wood 2011). The English also made up for their losses by depriving the Indians of their resources, the basis of their survival. The primary factor for the settlers' ultimate victory, however, was the constant flow of English immigrants, who would make up for any previous deaths and overtake the rest of the natives.
    ...
    explorers' deaths, the failings of the colony of Virginia were predominantly caused by natural conditions and the ineptitude of the colonists. The colonists did not accurately understand the Indians' culture, and showed no interest to learn; instead, they tried to take advantage of them and resorted to violence. Thus, they failed to maintain peace and order within the colony. Also, that the colonists came so unprepared and unskilled, they were dependent on impractical outside help from the primary factor.start. The James River also greatly detrimented the colony, as it was a
    ...
    and spread malaria.malaria and other deadly diseases. To add
    ...
    into the waterwater, making it extremely unsanitary and dangerous to use (Wood 2011).
    ...
    settlers died. The extremely high death rate due to all of the failures was a major failure in and of itself. There was
    The Virginia Company created a system of representative government through the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses. Starting in 1619, it practiced the right to make laws and levy taxes, since individual settlers were allowed to own more than 100 acres of land (Henretta 2007). The governor, as well as England's council, could veto any act of this new government, however. In 1624, James I took it upon himself to make Virginia a royal colony, with no more charter. The House of Burgesses was still to be in effect, but now the king's Privy Council was to approve of all legislation. Furthermore, Virginia had to pay taxes to the Church of England. Each of the royal colonies to follow would copy this overall system.
    With Virginia's government a clear success, its economy would make the colony a force to be reckoned with. Tobacco was the major cash crop that brought Virginia's success, but not until John Rolfe introduced the first sweet--rather than strong and unappealing--tobacco to the region. They traded this high-priced crop for food with other colonies, making it so that sustenance was no longer a problem (Wood 2011). As Virginia started to thrive and stabilize, they needed more land, and so, they moved westward; as a result, more labor was needed.
    (view changes)
    1:59 am
  2. page Common Sense edited ... For such arrangements as your Majesty’s wisdom can form for collecting the united sense of you…
    ...
    For such arrangements as your Majesty’s wisdom can form for collecting the united sense of your American people, we are convinced your Majesty would receive such satisfactory proofs of the disposition of the Colonists towards their Sovereign and Parent State, that the wished for opportunity would soon be restored to them, of evincing the sincerity of their professions, by every testimony of devotion becoming the most dutiful subjects, and the most affectionate Colonists.
    That your Majesty may enjoy long and prosperous reign, and that your descendants may govern your Dominions with honour to themselves and happiness to their subjects, is our sincere prayer.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    While the Second Continental Congress prepares for war in 1775, John Dickinson prepares the Olive Branch Petition to be sent to King George III in hopes of pledging their loyalty, while also civilly asserting their rights (Primary Sources). If the king had read the respectful document, he may not have called it a rebellion, as it was obviously the opposite. Dickinson’s tone is clearly polite, as he requests his “Majesty’s gracious attention.” He does not even blame the king for anything, but instead blames ministerial policy, evident when he writes that his “Majesty’s Ministers… have compelled [them] to arm in [their] own defense” (This Day in History). He then explains how the “still faithful Colonists” do not, and should not, break from England, as they are meant to be together for each other’s own good. Hence, he writes that they are “connected with Great Britain by the strongest ties that can unite societies.” Dickinson further explains that the colonists want their relationship status with England to be back to normal, as he writes that they “most ardently desire the former harmony between her and these Colonies [to] be restored.” Dickinson’s intentions are as clear as they can be when he writes that they are “ready and willing at all times” for ‘a happy and permanent reconciliation.” Evidently, he wants the colonists and England to apologize for their differences, and to be united as one nation again. His single request, however, is that the king take “measures [which] may be taken for preventing the further destruction of the lives of [his] Majesty’s subjects.” Here, Dickinson wants the king to protect the colonists and to guide them toward peace. However, the king proceeds to take the opposite approach; a different, more radical point of view now seems more practical.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    {http://moonstoneartscenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/thomaspaineoval.jpg} Thomas Paine
    Common Sense (1776)
    ...
    Where there are no distinctions there can be no superiority, perfect equality affords no temptation. The republics of Europe are all (and we may say always) in peace. Holland and Switzerland are without wars, foreign or domestic: Monarchical governments, it is true, are never long at rest; the crown itself is a temptation to enterprising ruffians at home; and that degree of pride and insolence ever attendant on regal authority swells into a rupture with foreign powers, in instances where a republican government, by being formed on more natural principles, would negotiate the mistake.
    If there is any true cause of fear respecting independence it is because no plan is yet laid down. Men do not see their way out. Wherefore, as an opening into that business I offer the following hints; at the same time modestly affirming, that I have no other opinion of them myself, than that they may be the means of giving rise to something better. Could the straggling thoughts of individuals be collected, they would frequently form materials for wise and able men to improve to useful matter.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    By
    By 1776, Thomas
    ...
    worsening trade. He explains that Britain only watches over the colonies to maintain its own economic security, not any of the interests of the colonies themselves. He explains
    ...
    European contentions.” He expresses certainty that any and all problems that have already come about will either continue or repeat themselves unless the colonies become independent. This is
    ...
    opposes the union.union, as it did the Jewish monarchy according to the Bible. He explains
    John Dickinson’s Olive Branch Petition and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense have their similarities, but they are ultimately different in technique, reasoning and goals. They are both attempts at solving the conflict between England and the colonists, but the former is passive, while the latter is radical (Henretta 2007). Dickinson wants England to restore order with the colonists and to unite as one, but Paine wants America to take a stand and break from the country completely. He confirms himself as a radical—and puts down others such as Dickinson himself—by criticizing the “moderate men.” Both authors find fault in the English government, however, and aim to have it fixed. They communicate their own ideas in drastically different ways, though; Dickinson politely requests change, or rather, renewal, which Paine demands a drastic change and attacks the English. Although Dickinson’s method is probably the best way to try to get the king to listen and act in the colonists’ best interest, Paine’s technique proves to be more practical when his own goals actually become reality.
    Bibliography:
    (view changes)
    1:18 am
  3. page Common Sense edited ... That your Majesty may enjoy long and prosperous reign, and that your descendants may govern yo…
    ...
    That your Majesty may enjoy long and prosperous reign, and that your descendants may govern your Dominions with honour to themselves and happiness to their subjects, is our sincere prayer.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ...
    Continental Congress preparedprepares for war
    ...
    John Dickinson preparedprepares the Olive
    ...
    as he request’srequests his “Majesty’s
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    {http://moonstoneartscenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/thomaspaineoval.jpg} Thomas Paine
    ...
    If there is any true cause of fear respecting independence it is because no plan is yet laid down. Men do not see their way out. Wherefore, as an opening into that business I offer the following hints; at the same time modestly affirming, that I have no other opinion of them myself, than that they may be the means of giving rise to something better. Could the straggling thoughts of individuals be collected, they would frequently form materials for wise and able men to improve to useful matter.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ...
    Thomas Paine expressedexpresses his own
    ...
    Dickinson’s method wasis probably the
    ...
    Paine’s technique provedproves to be
    ...
    goals actually becamebecome reality.
    Bibliography:
    Henretta, James A., David Brody, and Lynn Dumenil. America's History. Boston, MA:
    (view changes)
    12:30 am

Thursday, November 3

  1. page The Colony of New York edited ... Two weeks later, Leisler's rule officially began, for he received a letter from King William I…
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    Two weeks later, Leisler's rule officially began, for he received a letter from King William III, stating that in Nichols absence, he was responsible for keeping the peace in New York. However, this letter was not intended for him, but for his body of advisers. He misconstrued the letter, understanding that they wanted him to have complete authority over New York. Thus, he took that power.[7]
    Under Leisler's rule, heavy taxes were imposed on all the people of New York, officials were appointed only by him (he took both legislative and executive power). Leisler refused to pay import taxes if the collector was Catholic, and the colony got into conflict with its neighboring colonists. Leisler often spread anti-Catholic propaganda, making the colonists fear an attack from the Catholics north of them. In 1690, Leisler undertook the mission of conquering New France. He hoped that merchants would provide for troops by donating their goods, and stole those goods if they did not. At a meeting with the rest of the Dominion of New England, Leisler pushed the idea of the invasion and refused to have anyone lead the effort but his own officials. These sorts of conflicts contributed to the colonists' dislike for Leisler.[7]
    ...
    May 16, 1691.[7] Because1691.[7]Because of Leisler's
    New York Slaves:
    New York became successful in inter-colony trade apart from the Dutch's fur trade. However, the main good for this trade was not lumber or cotton - it was slaves. Before the English rule, the Dutch West India Company was the largest slave buyer in all of Africa. The W.I.C. was buying slaves in Africa, shipping them to Holland to be sold, and then bringing them to the colony. By the 1640s, the W.I.C. had risen the price of slaves from Africa by three hundred percent. They used these slaves to build roads, construct houses, tame the wild, and tame unruly New England neighbors. The Dutch also used slaves in the agricultural industry, with the design of attracting more settlers to Hudson Valley. By using the slaves for all the back-breaking work, farming became more attractive to immigrants, and the colony prospered. The Dutch looked at slaves in a purely economic way, which benefited both the slaves (who were not treated to unnecessarily harsh conditions) and freed slaves (who were not subject to racism, could own property, and were allowed to marry whites). However, as opposed to using the slaves for the good of the colony, the English used the colony for the good of the slave trade.[5]
    (view changes)
    10:41 pm
  2. page The Colony of New York edited ... {Henry_Hudson_Map_26.png} This map shows the route of Henry Hudson's 1609 expedition ... …
    ...
    {Henry_Hudson_Map_26.png}
    This map shows the route of Henry Hudson's 1609 expedition
    ...
    the Delaware River.[1]
    When
    River.[1]When the English
    ...
    The Dutch
    settled
    settled and traded
    This graphic shows the density of the Indian population in what is now New York. [6]"]] {york_indians.jpg}
    Conflict with Native Americans:
    ...
    Another conflict with Native Americans was the direct result of the Dutch’s dishonest trading. The Dutch had drained the Iroquois Indians of New Jersey of many of their resources, but when it came time for the Dutch to pay them in wampum and arms, the Dutch claimed they had not received the goods, and refused to pay them. Looking for revenge, the Native Americans destroyed the Dutch settlement on what is now Staten Island. In their own act of revenge, the Dutch allied with the Mohawks to destroy neighboring Native American tribes that were part of the Iroquois Confederation, which the Mohawks were all too willing to do. In one night, in 1643, nearly one hundred Native Americans were killed. Eventually, a truce was drawn up by Roger Williams, but the two parties were unsatisfied. The war, later called Kieft's War, continued until the Mohawks claimed sovereignty over the neighboring Indian tribes, ending the conflict with the Dutch. [1][2]
    New Amsterdam to New York:
    ...
    English Crown.[1]
    In
    In 1664, King
    To complete his conquest of the entirety of New Netherlands, Nichols forced the surrender of the Swedes near the Delaware River and bought the settlement on Long Island from the Earl of Sterling, to whom it had previously been granted. [1][2]
    Under English control, New York experienced both times of peace and times of turmoil. The population of the colony, which was about half Dutch, did not change their lifestyles under English rule; the Dutch still controlled the inland fur trade, and the English controlled New York harbor, effectively. However, in 1672, the English declared war against Holland. Although they had no right, the English were forcing the Dutch to 'renew' their lands by paying ridiculous fees. When the Dutch stopped paying these fees and started rebelling, the English declared war. On August 9th of that year, the Dutch sent a small troop of men to attack New York City. This military would not have conquered the English in normal circumstances, but since the governor of New York, Governor Lovelace, was away at the time, New York was left without a leader, and the colony was forced to surrender. The Dutch regained control over New York, returning its name to New Netherland, seizing the areas of New Jersey and Delaware as well. Eventually, peace was made by the Duke of York. In November, he erased all controversy there was over his titles for the land given him by Charles II; he purchased a new patent for the land, thus legitimizing his rule over the territory. [1]
    ...
    On May 30, 1689, the people of New York demanded that Nicholson step down until the new monarchs of England, William and Mary, made a decision for their leadership. They made Jacob Leisler the leader of the colony's militia, and took control over Fort James in New York harbor. On June 6, Nicholson fled to England. Leisler was the new head of New York; while he was in control, William and Mary sent a notice to the colony that all government positions be held by non-Catholics. Leisler followed these commands, and fired every Catholic official, most of whom had been placed into power by James II. [7]
    Two weeks later, Leisler's rule officially began, for he received a letter from King William III, stating that in Nichols absence, he was responsible for keeping the peace in New York. However, this letter was not intended for him, but for his body of advisers. He misconstrued the letter, understanding that they wanted him to have complete authority over New York. Thus, he took that power.[7]
    ...
    and executive power),power). Leisler refused
    ...
    May 16, 1691.[7]
    Because
    1691.[7] Because of Leisler's
    New York Slaves:
    New York became successful in inter-colony trade apart from the Dutch's fur trade. However, the main good for this trade was not lumber or cotton - it was slaves. Before the English rule, the Dutch West India Company was the largest slave buyer in all of Africa. The W.I.C. was buying slaves in Africa, shipping them to Holland to be sold, and then bringing them to the colony. By the 1640s, the W.I.C. had risen the price of slaves from Africa by three hundred percent. They used these slaves to build roads, construct houses, tame the wild, and tame unruly New England neighbors. The Dutch also used slaves in the agricultural industry, with the design of attracting more settlers to Hudson Valley. By using the slaves for all the back-breaking work, farming became more attractive to immigrants, and the colony prospered. The Dutch looked at slaves in a purely economic way, which benefited both the slaves (who were not treated to unnecessarily harsh conditions) and freed slaves (who were not subject to racism, could own property, and were allowed to marry whites). However, as opposed to using the slaves for the good of the colony, the English used the colony for the good of the slave trade.[5]
    (view changes)
    10:41 pm
  3. page 5.6 The Natives and Colonists face off! edited CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NATIVES AND COLONISTS ... Metacom's War Metacom's Metacom's War The N…
    CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NATIVES AND COLONISTS
    ...
    Metacom's War
    Metacom's
    Metacom's War
    The New England Confederation, otherwise known as the United Colonies of New England, was an alliance between the English colonies of: New Haven, Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. After several years of negotiations, delegates from each of the colonies met in Boston in 1643 and formed the New England Confederation. The Confederation was not intended to be a central government for the New England colonies; each still carried on its own governing institutions. (Freeborn)
    The organization was to be composed of two delegates from each of the four member colonies. Six of the eight votes were necessary to adopt any measure. Regular annual meetings were to be held, but additional conferences could be called in cases of emergency. Its purpose was to create an alliance of English colonies in order to defend against Native American attacks and raids on Colonial settlements. (White) It served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes as well. Perpetuity the alliance only lasted until 1684, when the confederation was disbanded, sadly none of its goals were accomplished. The New England Confederation was a small first step toward formal cooperation among the colonies. (Johnson)
    ...
    Picture of Metacomet:
    "Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials." Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records. Find A Grave, 13 June 2010. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr>.
    ...
    Nov. 2011;
    http://history.msu.edu/hst321/course-schedule/section-three-the-second-frontier/the-second-frontier/
    Freeborn, Micheal. "New England Confederation." American History and World History at Historycentral.com the Largest and Most Complete History Site on the Web. World History, 3 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.historycentral.com/documents/NewEngland.html>.
    (view changes)
    10:35 pm
  4. page 5.6 The Natives and Colonists face off! edited CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NATIVES AND COLONISTS {Fight.jpg} Metacom's War Metacom's War The New En…
    CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NATIVES AND COLONISTS
    {Fight.jpg} Metacom's War
    Metacom's War

    The New England Confederation, otherwise known as the United Colonies of New England, was an alliance between the English colonies of: New Haven, Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. After several years of negotiations, delegates from each of the colonies met in Boston in 1643 and formed the New England Confederation. The Confederation was not intended to be a central government for the New England colonies; each still carried on its own governing institutions. (Freeborn)
    The organization was to be composed of two delegates from each of the four member colonies. Six of the eight votes were necessary to adopt any measure. Regular annual meetings were to be held, but additional conferences could be called in cases of emergency. Its purpose was to create an alliance of English colonies in order to defend against Native American attacks and raids on Colonial settlements. (White) It served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes as well. Perpetuity the alliance only lasted until 1684, when the confederation was disbanded, sadly none of its goals were accomplished. The New England Confederation was a small first step toward formal cooperation among the colonies. (Johnson)
    ...
    Even Massasoit attempted to take on English customs. Before his death in 1661, he asked the legislators in Plymouth to give both of his sons English names. Wamsutta, the older son, was given the name Alexander, and his younger brother, Metacomet, was named Philip. Metacomet (also known as King Philip, Metacom, or Pometacom) was born in 1639 to a Wampanoag chief by the name of Massasoit. When Metacomet's father passed away the title of Sachem (chief) was passed onto his eldest son Watsumma (King Alexander). Watsumma mysteriously died after he paid a visit to a colonial settlement, and thus the title of Sachem was passed onto Metacomet. Metacomet is made famous by being the chief of the Wampanoag tribe throughout King Philip's War. At first he sought to live in harmony with the colonists. (Hilton)
    Philip was not seen as a radical Sachem, but under his rule the relationship between the Wampanoag and the colonists changed dramatically. Philip understood that the English would eventually take over everything, not only native land, but also their culture, their way of life and their religion. Philip decided to impede the further expansion of English settlements. For the Wampanoag alone, this was impossible, because at that time their tribe numbered less than 1,000. Philip began to visit other tribes, to talk them into his plan. This too was a nearly hopeless undertaking, because at that time the number of colonists in southern New England was more than double that of the Indians – 35,000 colonists in the face of 15,000 natives. (Indexnew)
    MAPS OF KING PHILIP'S WAR
    {king_philip's_war1}

    Finally, in 1671 Philip was called to Taunton, where he listened to the accusations of the English of the Plymouth Colony who forced major concessions from him. He surrendered much of his tribe's armament and ammunition, and agreed that they were subject to English law. He signed an agreement that required the Wampanoag to give up their firearms. To be on the safe side however, he did not take part in dinner, and the weapons were not delivered later either. The seizures of land by the English continued, and little by little, Philip gained the Nipmunk, Pocotomuc, and Narragansett as allies. The beginning of the uprising was first scheduled for the spring of 1676. Metacomet was chosen as a leader to lead all the fellow opponents of the English. (Hilton)
    When the war had eventually turned against him, he took refuge in the a swamp in Southern Massachusetts. Here he held out for a time, with his family and remaining followers. Hunted by a group of rangers led by Captain Benjamin Church, he was fatally shot on August 12, 1676, in the Miery Swamp near Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island. After his death, his wife and eight-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda, while his head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees. (Indexnew)
    ...
    Picture of Metacomet:
    "Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials." Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records. Find A Grave, 13 June 2010. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. <http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr>.
    Picture of Map of King Philip's War: 1) HST 321: History of the American West." HST 321. Web. 04 Nov. 2011;
    http://history.msu.edu/hst321/course-schedule/section-three-the-second-frontier/the-second-frontier/

    Freeborn, Micheal. "New England Confederation." American History and World History at Historycentral.com the Largest and Most Complete History Site on the Web. World History, 3 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.historycentral.com/documents/NewEngland.html>.
    Hilton, Jean. "King Philip." Mayflower And Early Families. Early America, 10 Dec. 2008. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.mayflowerfamilies.com/enquirer/king_philip.htm>.
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