5.5 Describe the goals and extent of the Dutch settlement in New York, the French settlements in Canada, and the Spanish settlements in Florida, the Southwest, and California. (H)

Key terms
Father Junipero Serra

Team of Kevin T and Delaney N

The Dutch

In 1609, a mere two years after the first English settlement at Jamestown, the Dutch hired an English sailor, Henry Hudson, to find a northeast passage to India. After an unsuccessful venture to Norway, Hudson turned his hopes to a northwest passage in the New World. Although he was not able to navigate north of preset-day Albany, New York, Hudson did successfully discover and claim the Hudson River for the Dutch throne. (National Parks Service, "Dutch Colonization") Hudson's journey up the Hudson changed the world's view of North America. To this point, it was seen as an impediment that hindered passage to India, but Hudson revealed it's true worth: picturesque views, fertile soil, and an abundance of furs. (u-s-history.com, "The New Netherland")

After failed attempts at colonization, the Dutch Parliament sought help and chartered the West India Company to oversee all Dutch expeditions in the Western Hemisphere. In 1624, the West India Company sponsored thirty families' travels to the new colony to establish a settlement on present-day Manhattan. Not taking an interest in agriculture, the settlers immediately jumped into the lucrative business of the fur-trade. (National Parks Service, "Dutch Colonization") Looking to gain full control of Manhattan, Peter Minuit, Director General of the settlement, purchased the island from the Natives for the equivalent of twenty-four dollars. This act officially established the settlement of New Amsterdam in 1626. After this purchase, the Dutch settlers began to move up the Hudson to the northern most fort, Fort Orange, which is present-day Albany. Despite the widespread growth, the overall colony's growth was slow, which is attributed to the diverse population living there. (u-s-history.com, "The New Netherland")

A map of the major Dutch settlements that shows there was also a movement into Connecticut and close to Massachusetts.
A map of the major Dutch settlements that shows there was also a movement into Connecticut and close to Massachusetts.

The Dutch settlements did not exist without conflict, both with other Europeans and with Native Americans. In the 1630's, General Director Wouter van Twiller sent expeditions up the Connecticut River into English territory. Given the choice between backing down and armed conflict, Twiller was forced to concede the territory. Around Fort Orange, the Dutch traders were forced to appease the Iroquois Tribe, but despite that there remained much corruption in the trading posts. Lower on the Hudson, Natives were seen as obstacles to many Europeans who were setting up farms and houses. During the 1630's and 1640's, Dutch Director Generals elected to use increasingly brutal tactics to deal with the Natives. Although these campaigns were successful in weakening the local Native Tribes, they also increased tensions between Europeans and the Natives. (National Parks Service, "Dutch Colonization")

The Spanish

The Spanish were infact the first group of people to colonize in North America. The colonization had started with
Christopher Columbus, though not the first person to discover the New World, played a large part in introducing colonization in America to Europe.
Christopher Columbus, though not the first person to discover the New World, played a large part in introducing colonization in America to Europe.
conquistadores. The main reasons for the want to settle in North America was to spread Chrisitanity using missionaries and expand trade. In 1492 the first conquistadore to come to this undescovered land was Christopher Columbus. On August 3rd, 1492, Christopher Columbus led three ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria, out of a spanish port in Palos. "His objective was to sail west till he reached Asia (The Indies) where the riches of gold, pears and spice awaited"(Christopher Columbus Discovers America, 1492) Upon his journey, Columbus found himself finding land, which he believed to be Asia, but was actually America. He had named this new peice of land the New World. Although he was not the first person to discover the New World, his discovery made a large impact by encouraging other Europeans to venture over and colonize. His discovery also opened up the eyes of Spain and their want for new land.

The first attempt at settlement was in Florida. It was shot down by unexpected weather conditions and Natives, which weren't too fond of the Spanish trying to settle on their land. In 1513 while exploring the Bahamas, Juan Ponce de León landed on the territory now know as Florida. Not knowing Columbus had done so two decades previous, Ponce de León claimed the land as Spanish territory. In 1565 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded the first colony at St. Augustine, making Florida officially Spanish land. "The Spanish established missions throughout the colony to convert Native Americans to Catholicism. Missions in northern Florida, such as those at St. Augustine and Apalachee (present-day Tallahassee), survived for many years"(Spanish Florida). With the establishment of agricullture and the perminent inhabitance of the land, Pensacola was perminitely established and Florida was Spain's.

Not only was Spain interested in Florida, but they also had a high interest in the Southwest because they had heard of the abundance of silver in Mexico. Exploration had started in the Southwest not long after Christopher Columbus had explored. "Spanish conquistadores such as Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro had conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico and the Incas of Peru. Subsequent explorers remained on the alert for other lands which might prove as wealthy as ones these men had conquered. It was this search for a "new" Mexico which ultimately led to the expedition which first brought the Spanish to New Mexico in 1540"(New Mexico Genealogical Society). In 1539 many conquistadors such as Fray Marcos de Niza and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado travelled to explore the unknown area that was said to have been filled with gold, silver, and treasures. Instead of finding treasures, Coronado found villages inhabited by Indians. Not only did the want for treasure bring Spainiards to claim the Southwest but also the want for converting. "In the early 1580s two Franciscan friars, Agustín Rodríguez and Antonio Espejo, visited Pueblo country to lay the groundwork for later missionary efforts. The favorable reports they circulated upon their return to Mexico revived official interest in settling the Southwest"(Early Settlement of the Southwest by Spain).

Above is a map showing the Spanish colonies and the areas claimed by Spain. As you can see Spain had claimed a large amount of land and colonized in places including Florida, a majority of the Southwest and the region of California
Above is a map showing the Spanish colonies and the areas claimed by Spain. As you can see Spain had claimed a large amount of land and colonized in places including Florida, a majority of the Southwest and the region of California
In 1595, Juan de Oñate recieved permission from King Phillip II to colonize in the Southwest region of where Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had explored. He had heard exciting stories about this area and wanted to colonize on it himself. "In 1598 he and his party of 129 soldiers and their wives and children reached the Pueblos, who had developed a resentment of the Spanish after their experiences with Coronado"(Early Settlement of the Southwest by Spain). Tention between the Natives and the Spanish were strong due to the lack of respect from Coronado. Onate and his people did not have the surplus and resources to last them. Because of this, they did exactly what the Indians resented Coronado for doing, they took their food. The Pueblos themselves did not have enough supplies and corn to last. Oñate and his people had strong authority over the Natives. The conflict with all the strong aouthority was the opposition by the Natives. the Acoma Pueblo established a revolt soon after colonization and killed many spanish soldiers. Onate's response what lacked any form of peace. He sent his soldiers to where the Acoma Pueblo had lived and in three days destroyed the village. Along with the demolished village, his soldiers killed nearly eight hundred pueblos including men, woman, elders and children.
Not all of the colonizations were for treaure and resulted in blood-shed. The colonization of California was a peaceful one.The distance from Spain and what is now today California left much of the land untouched and unused. The land itself was hardly inhabited. The first people to set foot on the area of California was the conquiestador Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo and his fellow Spanish sailors. He also had slaves from Africa and Indian slaves with him. After their landing on California, they made their way up as far as Oregon. California was one of the last areas to be colonized by Europeans. Spain saw this unused land as a perfect place to establish a protective barier of Mexico. "Father Junipero Serra arrived in San Diego during the summer of 1769 and founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the first of 21 Catholic missions that would spread along the coast of California. At the same time, the first presidio (military base) was established in San Diego. The mission and military presidio in San Diego were the first sites where Europeans and native Californians interacted regularly"(We Are California). Missionaries, soldiers and settlers all came from Spain to settle in California. Unlike the ways of settlers from Britian, the Spanish used different ways to connect with the native people. Instead of using force on the Natives, many Missionaries converted them to Christianity and encouraged them to join missionary labor and practices.
Californian natives agreed and left their culture, clothing, beliefs and way of life behind them. Many of them died in missionary work from diseas and famin.

"For decades, the Spanish priests were the most powerful group in California, but the Spanish plan to settle California was not completely successful. The Spanish hoped to colonize a vast area of land and convert thousands of Indians to Catholicism, but they tried to reach these goals thousands of miles from the center of power in Spain. California was the most distant outpost on the Spanish frontier, and Spain had difficulty attracting soldiers and settlers to the new land. With few exceptions, the settlers and their descendants stayed close to the coast. This left a major portion of California to the Indian tribes that had lived there for untold centuries"(We Are California).


Works Cited
"Christopher Columbus Discovers America, 1492." EyeWitness to History - History through the Eyes of Those Who Lived It. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/columbus.htm>.
"Early Settlement of the Southwest by Spain." Encyclopedia.com. Web. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2536600026.html>.
New Mexico Genealogical Society. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://www.nmgs.org/artcuar1.htm>.
"Spanish Florida." HistoryMiami. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://historymiamiarchives.org/online-exhibits/sf/sf.htm>.
"We Are California - Conquest & Colonization." We Are California. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. <http://www.weareca.org/index.php/en/era/1540s-1830s/overview_3.html>.