´╗┐Identify some of the major leaders and groups responsible for the founding of the original colonies in North America. 1) Who founded the colonyDONE
2) When was the colony foundedDONE
3) Why was the colony founded (Political, social, economic, religious)DONE
4) History of the Colony leading up to the French and Indian WarDONE
5) Colonies relationship with the Native AmericansDONE
6) Slave populationDONE
Key Terms
Rice PlantationsDONE
Restoration coloniesDONE
tobacco farmsDONE

North Carolina
North Carolina


Who Founded North Carolina and When Was It Founded

The first attempts to settle in North Carolina both failed when english conlonists were sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to Roanoake Island in 1585 and 1587. The first permanent English settlers in North Carolina came from southeastern Virginia, where they moved into the area of the Albemarle Sound in northeast North Carolina in 1653. In 1663, Charles II granted a charter to eight english noblemen, each of whom had helped him re-possess the throne. The charter that was granted by Charles II towards the eight noblemen, or the Lords Proprietor, was as follows:
Charles II
Charles II

""All that Territory or tract of ground, situate, lying, and being within our Dominions in America, extending from the North end of the Island called Luck Island, which lies in the Southern Virginia Seas and within six and Thirty degrees of the Northern Latitude, and to the West as far as the South Seas; and so Southerly as far as the River Saint Mathias, which borders upon the Coast of Florida, and within one and Thirty degrees of Northern Latitude, and West in a direct Line as far as the South Seas aforesaid; Together with all and singular Ports, Harbours, Bays, Rivers, Isles, and Islets belonging unto the Country aforesaid; And also, all the Soil, Lands, Fields, Woods, Mountains, Farms, Lakes, Rivers, Bays, and Islets situate or being within the Bounds or Limits aforesaid; with the Fishing of all sorts of Fish, Whales, Sturgeons, and all other Royal Fishes in the Sea, Bays, Islets, and Rivers within the premises, and the Fish therein taken;
"And moreover, all Veins, Mines, and Quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, Gems, and precious Stones, and all other, whatsoever be it, of Stones, Metals, or any other thing whatsoever found or to be found within the Country, Isles, and Limits ....""(http://ncpedia.org/)

The land that was taken by the Lords Proprietor was to be named "Carolina" in honor of Charles I. After territorial disputes, a second charter was granted to the Lords Proprietor in order to settle the disputes. The extended boudaries of Carolina was as follows:

""All that Province, Territory, or Tract of ground, situate, lying, and being within our Dominions of America aforesaid, extending North and Eastward as far as the North end of Carahtuke River or Gullet; upon a straight Westerly line to Wyonoake Creek, which lies within or about the degrees of thirty six and thirty Minutes, Northern latitude, and so West in a direct line as far as the South Seas; and South and Westward as far as the degrees of twenty nine, inclusive, northern latitude; and so West in a direct line as far as the South Seas.""(http://ncpedia.org/)

From 1663-1729, the colony of Carolina was under control of the Lords Proprietor as well as their followers. John Locke, a well known philosopher, wrote the Fundamental Constitutions,which served as a model government for Carolina. Another region around present day Charlestown, South Carolina began to become highly populated. Because of the natural harbor that was located in this region, more attention was given to this region rather than the Albemarle County. For nearly 20 years, North and South Carolina worked under the same unit of government. Although North Carolina had it's own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina as a whole was located in Charlestown while a deputy governor was given to North Carolina. North Carolina was seen as a Royal County in 1729 when seven of the eight Prorietors sold their interests to the Crown. The sole Proprietor that was left, Lord Granville, kept his economic interests in Carolina. The Crown supervised all political and administrative parts of the County until 1775.(http://ncpedia.org/)

Reasons for the Founding of North Carolina

Political

North Carolina was known as a restoration colony. All restoration colonies were propreitorships which meant that one man or one group of men owned all land and the government. He, or they, would then sell the land to people and demand quitrents, or taxes, on the land. The proprietors were economically sound at this time because the quitrents were usually very high so they made a large profit. Each proprietor was given their land because Charles II owed each of them for being loyal to him throught the English Civil War. When Charles II regained the throne from the Puritans, he rewarded his suppoters with this land and they were allowed to govern it however they pleased. North Carolina's proprietors had one main goal and that was to profit off of their newly acquired land.(http://iweb.tntech.edu/)

Economic

Economic interests of North Carolina was their tobacco farms and rice plantations. The tobacco farms were made because tobacco was very popular in Europe. Tobacco was sold with moderate success and it was enough to keep the economy going. As Carolina's economy struggled, they needed to find a new way to profit. Rice was eventually discovered as it was imported from Asia and it grew very well in this region. South Carolina became one of the wealthiest colonies because of these rice plantaions and all colonies surronding it began to follow suit.(http://iweb.tntech.edu/)

Religious

North Carolina was religiously tolerant to all religions in order to attract more people. The more people that came to North Carolina meant the more profit that the propreitors would receive. North Carolina was mainly catholic but a person of any religion was welcome to rent land from the owners of the Colony.(http://www.learnnc.org/)

Life Before the French and Indian War & the Settlers' Relationship With the Natives

Edward Hyde
Edward Hyde
After settling in North Carolina, the english settlers had problems with the Indians that previously lived there. The group that they had the largest problem with was the Tuscarora Indians. The englishmen often cheated the Native Americans in trades. They would steal or kill these natives in order to obtain goods without having to pay. The Tuscaroras believed that the land and it's animals was not personal property, but natural resouces that were open to any person that was in need of it. The settlers came in and immediately delcared ownership of the land and everything that resided in it. Both sides tried to steer clear of armed war, but it became inevitable after treaties were ignored by the settlers. In a final attempt to leave the settlers of North Carolina, the Tuscarora Indians tried to emmigrate into Pennsylvania but they were denied entrance. In 1711, the Tusacarora chief, Hancock, broguht together 500 warriors to drive out colonists. On September 23, 1711, small groups of these warriors began to attack plantations near the the city of Bath. The colonists were not ready for the assault and they suffered 130 deaths, which included women and children. Since North Carolina was heavily populated with quakers, not many
Tuscarora War
Tuscarora War

weapons were kept on hand so the governor of North Carolina, Edward Hyde, turned to Virginia for help. When Virginia demanded land along the border, Hyde turned to South Carolina who asked ffor nothing in return. They sent Col. John Barnwell with 30 white officers and 500 Natives from various tribes. Barnwell forced the Tuscarora to turn back and free their prisoners. South Carolina decided to keep some of the Tuscarora Indians as slaves as a payment for helping, but, this only angered the natives more and it brought upon another wave of attacks the following summer. The settlers were weakened by a yellow fever epidemic which had killed multiple people, including Governor Hyde. Many people fled the colony. The new governor, Thomas Pollock, turned back to South Carolina who this time sent Col. James Moore with 33 whites and almost 1000 natives. The settlers easily won while killing over 900 warriors.(http://www.learnnc.org/)

Slave Population of North Carolina

Since North Carolina had a large quaker population, slavery was not encouraged. In 1708 the population of African-American slaves was under 500 and at the end of the Lords Proprietor's rule in 1729, the slave population was about 6,000. The slave population of North Carolina grew every year until slavery was abolished in 1865.(http://www.carolana.com/)

Works Cited

"Colonial Period Overview | NCpedia." NCpedia Home Page | NCpedia. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. http://ncpedia.org/history/colonial/overview.
Shamlin., Jim. "The Tuscarora War - North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1876.
"South Carolina Rice Plantations." Yale University. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. http://yale.edu/glc/gullah/02.htm.
"Tobacco Farming the Old Way - North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 29 Aug. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-newsouth/4386.
"Carolina - The African Slaves." Carolana - One Vision - Many Dreams! Web. 29 Aug. 2011.
http://www.carolana.com/Carolina/Settlement/african_slaves_in_carolana.html.


Team of Steve A, Kory D, and Kevin
Written by: Kory De Nardo
Revised by: Kevin Wery